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Map of Pakistan 

اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان

9.10.08 09:34, kommentieren

Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)


Mohammed Ali Jinnah, March 1942
Mohammed Ali Jinnah, March 1942 ©
Jinnah was an Indian politician who successfully campaigned for an independent Pakistan and became its first leader. He is known there as 'Quaid-I Azam' or 'Great Leader'.


Mohammed Ali Jinnah was born on 25 December 1876 in Karachi, now in Pakistan, but then part of British-controlled India. His father was a prosperous Muslim merchant.

Jinnah studied at Bombay University and at Lincoln's Inn in London. He then ran a successful legal practice in Bombay. He was already a member of the Indian National Congress, which was working for autonomy from British rule, when he joined the Muslim League in 1913. The league had formed a few years earlier to represent the interests of Indian Muslims in a predominantly Hindu country, and by 1916 he was elected its president.

In 1920, the Indian National Congress launched a movement of non-cooperation to boycott all aspects of British rule. Jinnah opposed this policy and resigned from the congress. There were by now profound differences between the congress and the Muslim League.

After provincial elections in 1937, the congress refused to form coalition administrations with the Muslim League in mixed areas. Relations between Hindus and Muslims began to deteriorate. In 1940, at a Muslim League session in Lahore, the first official demand was made for the partition of India and the creation of a Muslim state of Pakistan. Jinnah had always believed that Hindu-Muslim unity was possible, but reluctantly came to the view that partition was necessary to safeguard the rights of Indian Muslims.

His insistence on this issue through negotiations with the British government resulted in the partition of India and the formation of the state of Pakistan on 14 August 1947. This occurred against a backdrop of widespread violence between Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs, and a vast movement of populations between the new states of Pakistan and India in which hundreds of thousands died.

Jinnah became the first governor general of Pakistan, but died of tuberculosis on 11 September 1948.

8.10.08 12:48, kommentieren

“Verily, I am Allâh: There is no god but I: So serve Me (only), and perform regular prayers for My remembrance.”   (Qur'an 20:14)


“Say: ‘He is Allâh, the One; Allâh, the Eternal, Absolute begets He not, nor is He begotten; and there is none like unto Him.’” (Qur’an 112:1-4)                    

 “That is Allâh, your Rabb (Only Cherisher and Sustainer)! There is no god but He, the Creator of all things: so, worship Him (Alone) and He has power to dispose of all affairs.” (Qur’an 6:102-103)

1 Kommentar 8.10.08 08:29, kommentieren


اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان

Islāmī Ǧumhūriya-i Pākistān (Urdu)
Islamic Republic of Pakistan (engl.)
Islamische Republik Pakistan

Flagge Pakistans
Wappen Pakistans

1 Kommentar 6.10.08 22:41, kommentieren

Muhammad Iqbal

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Muhammad Iqbal
Islamic Philosophy
Modern era

Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal
علامہ محمد اقبال
Full name Sir Muhammad Iqbal
Birth November 9, 1877 in Sialkot, British India (now Pakistan)
Death April 21, 1938 (aged 60) in Lahore, British India (now Pakistan)
School/tradition Islamic philosophy
Main interests poetry, philosophy
Notable ideas Two-Nation Theory

Sir Muhammad Iqbal (Urdu: محمد اقبال; November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was a Muslim poet, philosopher and politician born in Sialkot, British India (now in Pakistan), whose poetry in Urdu, Arabic and Persian is considered to be among the greatest of the modern era,[1] and whose vision of an independent state for the Muslims of British India was to inspire the creation of Pakistan. He is commonly referred to as Allama Iqbal (علامہ اقبال‎, Allama meaning "Scholar".)

After studying in England and Germany, Iqbal established a law practice, but concentrated primarily on writing scholarly works on politics, economics, history, philosophy and religion. He is best known for his poetic works, including Asrar-e-Khudi—which brought a knighthoodRumuz-e-Bekhudi, and the Bang-e-Dara, with its enduring patriotic song Tarana-e-Hind. In India, he is regarding for the patriotic song, Saare Jahan Se Achcha (सारे जहाँ से अच्छा. In Afghanistan and Iran, where he is known as Iqbāl-e Lāhorī (اقبال لاہوریIqbal of Lahore), he is highly regarded for his Persian works.

Iqbal was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilisation across the world, but specifically in India; a series of famous lectures he delivered to this effect were published as The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. One of the most prominent leaders of the All India Muslim League, Iqbal encouraged the creation of a "state in northwestern India for Indian Muslims" in his 1930 presidential address.[2] Iqbal encouraged and worked closely with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and he is known as Muffakir-e-Pakistan ("The Thinker of Pakistan", Shair-e-Mashriq ("The Poet of the East", and Hakeem-ul-Ummat ("The Sage of Ummah". He is officially recognised as the "national poet" in Pakistan. The anniversary of his birth (یوم ولادت محمد اقبال‎ - Yōm-e Welādat-e Muḥammad Iqbāl) on November 9 is a holiday in Pakistan.

1 Kommentar 7.10.08 14:21, kommentieren